How to Choose the Right Solar Panel For your Home – Guide

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Power cuts are one of the biggest problems Indians have to deal with in the country. One way to ensure that your home or office receives uninterrupted power is to use generators or inverters.

Generators can be difficult to use and noisy. It consumes a lot of fuel. The limitations of home inverters are especially concerning managing loads.

Installing solar energy plants is the ideal solution in such situations. India has a lot of sunshine. Most places get more than 300 days of sunshine.

Second, Solar energy is free. This is why harnessing the natural energy of the sun should be the best solution to India’s power shortage issues.

How to Choose the Right Solar Panel For your Home

The benefits of installing a solar PV system

  • Solar Photovoltaic (Solar Photovoltaic) systems can be used to address power outages efficiently.
  • These are some of the many benefits of solar PV systems that generate electricity for commercial and domestic use.
  • A solar PV system can be installed once only.
  • The system is easy to maintain and provides a steady supply of electricity for commercial or residential establishments.
  • Sunlight, the main raw material for solar PV systems, is free. This free resource is harnessed by your solar PV system to produce electricity.
  • This system generates electricity and helps you manage your electricity bills.
  • Modern-day solar PV systems can also provide electricity to the primary grid. This allows you to become a generator rather than a consumer of electricity. It assists the states in addressing their power shortages.
  • The Indian government has provided subsidies to encourage people to use solar energy as a source of electricity.
  • The household receives an uninterrupted supply of electricity. The electricity generated can be stored in a battery connected to a home-inverter. This reduces your dependence on the primary electricity grid.

These are the elements of a Solar PV system.

Photovoltaic array

The array is composed of solar PV panels which produce DC voltage when they receive sunlight. These panels and modules can be connected in series to create an electric supply. This article will discuss solar PV panels in greater detail.

Battery Bank

Your inverter battery is the same as your battery bank. The battery bank can store excess energy and can be used later as an alternative source of electricity if the sun’s energy is unavailable.

Power Conditioning Unit

This unit protects you from electrical faults such as short circuits or line-to-ground errors. This unit converts the DC power from the solar PV panels to AC for your home or business. It controls the input energy of the PV panels as well as the output energy coming from the battery bank.

DC and AC Disconnect

This component protects technical personnel against electric shocks during maintenance.

The central panel (AC).

The main panel is connected to all the loads of the building. Circuit breakers provide protection.

Electric Meter

This meter allows the user to see the amount of power generated and how much is being used. You can also supply electricity to the primary network if you produce excess energy. In such cases, your electric meters should be able to ‘Net Metering’.

This article will discuss solar PV panels. It will also explain the important factors to consider when buying them. This buying guide will provide insight into the concept of solar panels.

Why should you install solar panels?

In India, solar PV systems are generally installed for these three reasons:

Compensation for power outages and reduce your overall electricity consumption From the primary grid

Keep excess power in batteries so that you can use it when solar energy is unavailable
Inspire by your neighborhood

India is yet to adopt the concept of power supply to the primary network.

States like Tamilnadu and Andhra Pradesh have begun to implement the concept. Net metering is available in English. It is still not popular.

Indian Solar Panel Buyers: Classification

Before we get into the topic of the buying guide solar panels, let’s first look at the buying pattern. Then, let’s classify buyers based upon this methodology.

In India, there are three types of solar panel buyers.

The Layman Buyer

This group accounts for nearly 60% to 65% of Indian solar panel buyers. This group of buyers doesn’t know much about solar panels. This group of buyers will find the buying guide useful.

The Brand Conscious Buyer

These buyers prefer specific brands. This group accounts for approximately 15% of total consumers.

Technically-Equipped Buyer

This group includes highly qualified who are familiar with the operation of solar panels and how to use them. They account for between 20% and 25% of India’s total solar panel consumers.

How can a layman buy solar panels?

Search engines such as Google are essential for understanding the concept of solar panel design and construction. They search for queries such as “1KW solar PV system price India”, “1KW solar panels for 3-bedroom houses”, and so forth.

This buying guide is extremely useful for these buyers. We will go in-depth about the concept.

The Brand Conscious buyer stands out

A brand-conscious buyer will be able to directly access the website for the particular brand of solar panels. These buyers don’t have much knowledge about the operation of the system.

They are those who are most influenced by society and advertisements. They will often look for brands, but ultimately end up buying the one they like the best.

Technically competent people make measured choices

Solar experts, manufacturers, installers, dealers, and solar experts are the most technically skilled. This buyer is familiar with the top brands and manufacturers of solar panels.

These people can help other users find the right equipment, and they can also guide them in purchasing it. These people are often able to place large orders.

Guide to Buying Solar Panels

We’ve already covered the components of a solar PV array. We also briefly touched on the functions of each component.

The most important component of a solar PV system is the solar panels, as you can see from the discussion.

The solar panels are almost half the cost of installing the system.

Nearly 25% of the cost is for the inverter and battery bank. The remaining cost includes the other components as well as the mounting structures, wires and cabling, and junction boxes.

Solar panels – The parts

Solar cells make up solar panels. Solar panels are not the only thing that makes up a solar PV system.

You will need to perform different tasks such as cutting, tapping, stringing, and connecting. These are the components of a solar PV system.

Frame: The outer protection layer

Glass: It protects solar cells against damage

Encapsulant: It is an important component that acts as a glue between the solar cells and the top and bottom sides of the PV modules. It should be transparent optically and have low thermal resistance. It should be stable to high temperatures and UV exposure.

Solar cells: This location is where you can absorb sunlight and convert solar energy to electricity.

Encapsulant: The encapsulant layer is located beneath the solar cells and serves to connect them to the back sheet.

The Back sheet: supports the entire module.

The Junction box this: the box contains the wires that carry the energy from individual solar cells to the power conditioning unit.

 

Solar Panels: How do they work?

Solar panels absorb sunlight throughout the day. The sun’s intensity determines how intense the solar panels are able to absorb sunlight and contribute to current flow.

Solar panels convert solar energy into electricity. This energy can be stored in batteries for later use.

Solar PV Systems: Different Types

There are generally two types of solar systems in India.

Solar System Off-Grid

The solar system is not connected to the primary grid. The solar system consists of solar panels, mounting structures, and an inverter. It also includes power back-up and the central AC panel.

This system is independent of the network. It allows the storage of energy in the batteries banks, which can then be used to supply current for the household with the domestic inverter.

These solar systems can be used in areas where the main electricity supply is not reliable. These systems are extremely useful in areas that experience severe power shortages.

Solar system on-grid

The on-grid solar system is used in conjunction with the primary grid. This system doesn’t need to store electricity at battery banks.

This is useful when your total electricity consumption is high.

The total electricity consumption of the primary grid is reduced by using the solar system to generate electricity during the day. This will result in a reduction in your utility bills.

Hybrid Solar System

Hybrid solar systems are the third type. It is a mixture of both the off-grid system and the on-grid.

This system uses inverters and battery banks like the off-grid system. The best thing about the hybrid solar system? It connects to the grid.

It ensures that power is always available, even when it is not in use. Power outages at night. These situations are where the energy stored in the batteries is very useful.

This system allows you to use solar energy for your daily needs so that you don’t need electricity from the main grid.

The energy stored in the batteries can even take over at night. You might end up with surplus power that can be supplied to the primary grid.

You should still have a Net metering system you want to supply power to the network. This system allows you to save money and power.

Types of Photo Voltaic Panels

There are generally three types of photovoltaic panels, with the most common being the two first-named ones.

Mono-Crystalline Panel

Mono-crystalline solar cells use single-crystal, single-silicon. The silicon used in the manufacture of monocrystalline solar cells is formed into bars and then cut into wafers.

This panel is the most efficient. They are also the most expensive.

Panels with polycrystalline or multi-crystalline panels

These solar panels are made of multiple small silicon crystals. To make the poly-crystalline panels, you need to melt silicon fragments into wafers.

Thin Film

These panels include Amorphous crystalline (Cadmium Telluride), CdTe(Cadmium Telluride), and CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Selenide). These panels are the most inefficient of all solar photovoltaic panel types.

This table will help to explain the importance of this photovoltaic cell.

India is not a big market for thin panels. The monocrystalline and the polycrystalline solar cells are used in household PV systems.

Factors that impact the performance of the solar photovoltaic cell

Direction

The direction of solar panels that have sun-tracking mechanisms is irrelevant. For better output, PV panels with a fixed position should be facing the south for better performance throughout the year.

Tilt or Angle of Inclination

It all depends on where you are located. The angle of inclines for panels placed at ground level is different from those required at higher altitudes.

Shading

Your solar panels should be placed so that they are not affected by shadows at all times of the day. Shaded solar cells will produce a lower efficiency than those that are fully exposed to the sun. To get maximum output, it is important to ensure that the panels are clean.

Temperature

Surprisingly the panel’s output is affected by the temperature. The ideal temperature is around 25 degrees Centigrade

There are many factors to consider when buying solar panels

It is a unique decision to invest in a domestic PV system. It is a costly investment.

It is important to take into account the following factors when purchasing solar panels.

We will discuss metrics such as efficiency, tolerance levels, and temperature coefficient. These metrics will determine the number of solar panels required for your home’s solar PV system.

This will help you select the right vendor. We aim to make it easy for the buyer to become technical so that they can choose the right brand.

Efficiency

The efficiency of solar panels is a major factor. You will need fewer panels to power your solar PV system if the efficiency is higher.

The efficiency of a solar panel is dependent on how much sunlight it can convert to electricity.

Let’s now look at the mathematical calculation for the efficiency of a photovoltaic module.

A solar panel covers approximately 2 square meters. It is approximately 1.95 square meters if you exclude the area occupied by the frame.

Now let’s consider the efficiency and effectiveness of a 350W Loom solar panels(One of the most trusted brands of solar panels in India). Different panels offer different levels of efficiency.

Efficiency (%) = {Output power per square metre / Input power per square metre X 100|Efficiency (%) = Output Power per Square Meter / Input Power per Square Meter X 100}

= { (350/1.95) / (1000/1) X 100|= (350/1.95)/ (1000/1)X 100}

= {350 / 1950 X 100|= 350/ 1950 X100}

= {0.1795 X 100|= 0.1795X100}

17.95% (approximately).

Trina Solar, a Chinese brand, boasts an efficiency of 17.80%. SunPower claims its efficiency is around 24.1%.

The efficiency of Luminous solar panels is approximately 17.11%. This calculation will give an idea of the efficiency.

Here’s an example

Consider a solar PV panel with a 17% efficiency. It covers an area of approximately 1.5 square meters.

The panel emits approximately 1000 Watts of solar radiation per square meter.

The panel is, therefore, able to produce

1000 x 17% X 1,5 = 255 watts per hour.

The panel will produce 1.275 KW/hour power if the energy is sustained for approximately five hours.

A solar panel’s efficiency is increased crucial to have enough space you have everything you need. You should consider solar panels with high-efficiency levels if the area is small.

These factors affect the efficiency of solar panels.

  • The amount of sunlight that hits the panel
  • The panel’s exposure to sunlight and its temperature
  • The angle of tilt or inclination
  • The presence of dust or shadows on the panel

Some factors, like the intensity or amount of sunlight, can be influenced by these factors. We are not responsible for the results.

It is important to ensure there are no shadows around the panels. It is also a good idea to clean the panels regularly and not let the dust settle.

It is also important to consider the inclination of panels. You can now have automated systems that place the panels. Adjust the tilt depending on the direction and intensity of the sun.

Tolerance levels

A 100W solar panel should produce 100 Watts under ideal conditions. There is however a tolerance level.

Manufacturers advertise a tolerance of +/- 5%. The panel’s output will range from 95W to 105W.

positive tolerance is acceptable positive figure is not.

You should ensure that the solar panel you choose has a positive tolerance level.

Temperature coefficient

For solar panels to work, they need sunlight. Solar cells can heat up, so it is important to be aware of this fact.

The cells can be damaged by high temperatures. The efficiency of a solar panel is determined by its temperature coefficient.

The better the temperature coefficient is, the more it is.

To discuss the temperature coefficient, we will use the Loom Solar 350W panel as an example.

Labor tests have confirmed that the temperature is the right one for the task. The ideal temperature for solar panels to function is 25 degrees Celsius.

Let’s look at two scenarios.

  1. The temperature of solar panels is 45° if the temperature exceeds 25°C
  2. Temperatures below 25°C (Temperature at 15 degrees)

Inference

If the temperature exceeds 25 degrees Centigrade

  • Power output will fall
  • Also, the voltage will drop
  • Current will rise

Temperatures below 25 degrees Centigrade are considered to be cold.

  • Power output will rise
  • The voltage will rise
  • Current will fall

These are technical details, but it is better to have an idea before you purchase the panels for your solar PV system.

You can adjust the tilt angle to reduce the intensity of the light falling on the panel if the temperature is too high.

It is, therefore, better to have invested a panel system automatic tilting Depending on the intensity of the sun.

The Solar Panel’s durability

The solar panels can be used outdoors. They must withstand the elements, including heavy rains, winds, pressure, temperature, and hailstorms.

The majority of the time, Panels go through rigorous tests before being certified for use in a country, certification will be based on the various environmental conditions.

A solar panel that is approved for installation in India may be different from one that is approved for installation in the UK. You, the consumer, should choose panels that have been certified to be suitable for your country.

Rating agencies evaluate these panels and assign ratings to each panel. We will be looking at the best solar panels in India.

These panels are waterproof and resistant to corrosion. They offer great protection against snowfall and high winds.

Loom Solar and Microtek Solar panels can withstand heavy winds and snowfall (5400 Pa and 5400 P, respectively). These panels are capable of handling issues such as mist, ammonia and hailstorms, excessive pressures, stone-throwing, blowing sand, and stone-throwing.

It is recommended to choose the solar panels they are the most durable.

Manufacturer warranty

Manufacturers offer attractive warranties based on the panel’s durability. Manufacturers of solar panels face many challenges in their businesses, including declining prices and the effects of government regulations.

It can be difficult for smaller players to sustain their growth. They offer fewer warranties. Brand-conscious buyers look for brands that offer the best efficiency, durability, and the highest quality.

Loom Solar, Luminous and other brands offer a 10-year warranty on their products as well as a 25-year performance warranty. Microtek offers a 25-year performance warranty and a 1-year warranty against manufacturing defects.

Approvals and certifications – The most important factor

As required by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, solar PV panels must have unique certifications. These certifications are important to know.

Crystalline Silicon Terrestrial PV Modules –IEC 61215/IS 14286

Thin-Film Terrain PV Modules

Solar panels must comply with the following: IEC 61730 Part 1.Construction requirements and Part 2 requirements for safety qualifications and testing.

The atmosphere in coastal areas can be extremely corrosive. Salt Mist Corrosion Testing must be performed on the solar panels.IEC 61701 and IS 61701

Solar panels can be very expensive. These certificates should be requested and verified. These precautions are better than regretting making the purchase.

We’ve discussed the technical aspects of solar panel technology and the factors that will influence your decision.

We now get to the most important part of the discussion.

Power Requirement: It can vary from one person to another

You should calculate your power needs before you decide to invest in a solar PV array. We mean the power requirements for electrical appliances such as fans, tube lights, and computers.

  • Calculate the load in Watts.
  • To get the UPS VA rating, multiply this number by 1.67
  • You can choose your UPS based on the high VA rating.
  • Choose the best battery compatible with your UPSAH.
  • Divide the energy consumed (Watt-hours), by 3 to get the panel size.
  • Verify that your UPS is compatible with the voltage and current of your solar array.
  • Your UPS and solar sizing are now complete.

Example

The ideal Indian family will consist of three to four people.

UPS Size

Total load = 490 watts

UPS Size = 490 X 1.67 = 816.7 VA

An 850 VA UPS is the best option.

The 850 VA solar UPS can support a battery voltage of up to 12 Volts and a 30 Ampere rating.

Size of the Battery

One 12V battery will be supported by the selected UPS.

Battery AH = Total Daily Watt-hours X 1.91 divided by (12 X batteries).

= (940 X 1.9) divided by (12.X1).

= 155 AAH

You should choose a minimum 150 AH solar battery

Panel Sizing

Panel Size = Daily Energy Use divided by 3.

= 980/3 = 326.7 Watts

Our UPS is compatible with the 12V system. We need 12V panels, such as 100 Wp and 150 Wp.
You can choose to have 3 X 100Wp panels or 2x150Wp panels.

Solar PV System Costs

An off-grid 1KW solar panel system with solar power should be affordable in India at Rs 1 lakh to 1.25 lakhs.

The cost of a grid-connected solar system should be between Rs 60,000 and Rs 1 lakh

Two batteries and three panels are required for a 1KW system. A typical inverter battery will cost around Rs 21,000.

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